Tag Archives: 2 Thessalonians

Second Thessalonians: The ABCs

Authorship, Background, and Contents 

Authorship

Second Thessalonians claims to be written by the apostle Paul, but it is sometimes grouped among the “disputed” letters; that is, its genuineness as a letter of the apostle is doubted, on the basis of internal evidence.

“External evidence” refers to the historical data, such as quotations by other early writers, ancient manuscripts, and explicit references. The odd thing about the charge of inauthenticity is that the external evidence for this letter is actually stronger than that for 1 Thessalonians, which is seldom doubted, if ever. Second Thessalonians is referred to in the very early work, the Didache, and by the writers Ignatius, Polycarp, and Justin Martyr in the second century.

“Internal evidence” refers to the text of the letter itself, and considers such things as grammar, expressions, and thought patterns. Some liberal scholars have maintained that Paul’s doctrine of the end times (eschatology) is different than that found in 1 Thessalonians and his other letters.

Questioning the authenticity of biblical books for reasons like this is common among liberal scholars, but the problems with basing a case upon internal evidences are many. One is their subjective nature. In other words, these opinions are based on no more than the “gut feeling” of the scholars. Along with that, differences in grammar or expression can be accounted for by other reasons, such as the use of a different amanuensis (secretary). We should in humility also admit that there might have been circumstances that affected it of which we know nothing.

Most Bible students have found no inconsistency in the doctrine of 2 Thessalonians, and they believe that, along with the weight of historical witnesses, should carry the argument over subjective speculations.

Conservative scholars and Bible students have therefore dismissed the charges of those who rely on their “gut feeling” that the letter is not genuine. They have found that the strong historical evidences and the marks of Paul’s genuine teaching and doctrine are sufficient reasons to trust that this letter is from the apostle and the Word of God.

 

Backgroundtheossolian map

Within weeks or, at most, a few months of writing 1 Thessalonians, the apostle Paul wrote this second letter to that young congregation. Like the first, it was written from Corinth during Paul’s eighteen month ministry there. Since this letter followed the first so quickly, most of the Background discussion in “1 Thessalonians: the ABCs” applies here (see that webpage).

Some further information about the church had reached Paul, which stimulated him to write this letter. There seem to have been three major issues:

1.      The opposition faced by the believers in Thessalonica, which he alluded to in the first letter, had apparently become worse. Paul wanted to strengthen them to endure suffering for Christ’s sake.

2.      A counterfeit letter claiming to be from Paul, or some “prophetic” messages regarding the Lord’s Day, had unsettled them. Paul wanted to clarify his teaching and establish their expectations accurately.

3.      In light of those misunderstandings of what we commonly call the “end times,” some of the believers in Thessalonica were dropping out of normal everyday labor to “wait for the Lord.” Paul wanted to set them straight.

The estimated time of writing is the second half of A.D. 50, making it one of Paul’s earliest letters.

 

Contents

Paul’s letter deals with each of the issues mentioned in Background. They correspond with the three chapters into which the letter is divided.

  • The persecution faced by the Thessalonians and God’s promised answer.

In the first chapter, Paul acknowledges the persecution being received by the church, and commends them for their persevering faith. One reason they can take heart is the knowledge that God is observing their trials, and in his justice will one day deal with their persecutors:

 

God is just: He will pay back trouble to those who trouble you and give relief to you who are troubled, and to us as well. (1:6-7)

 

In the meantime, Paul prays for their encouragement:

 

With this in mind, we constantly pray for you, that our God may count you worthy of his calling, and that by his power he may fulfill every good purpose of yours and every act prompted by your faith. (1:11)

 

While none of us wants to experience opposition for our faith, it is always possible in this world. Paul’s perspective and prayers can guide us in how to respond when either we or other believers we know are persecuted.

 

  • Responding to confusion caused by a counterfeit message.

 

Paul begins the teaching portion of the letter by referring to a counterfeit message:

 

Concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered to him, we ask you, brothers, not to become easily unsettled or alarmed by some prophecy, report or letter supposed to have come from us, saying that the day of the Lord has already come. (2:1-2)

 

In the formative years of the church before the New Testament was written, the Lord sometimes delivered direct revelation through living prophets. It’s possible that a member of the church or a visitor had delivered a false prophecy that created confusion and fear among the people. It’s also possible that a counterfeit letter with Paul’s name attached had made its way there with the same kind of message.

Either the reality or the possibility of such a false letter moved Paul to add this at the end of 2 Thessalonians:

 

I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write. (3:17)

 

In other words, the original letter sent to Thessalonica included this sentence in Paul’s own handwriting with his autograph. It enabled them to check the authenticity of future communications.

 

  • Correcting their doctrinal understanding of end times prophecy.

 

The false message had apparently claimed that the Lord’s final wrap-up of history prior to inaugurating his kingdom had begun. Members of the church were afraid and confused, wondering if they had missed out somehow. In 2:1-11 Paul clarifies the specific order of events before “the Lord’s Day” to calm them and impart confidence.

In summary, the order of events is:

  1. The “rebellion” or “apostasy” comes first — a decisive and widespread falling away from professed “faith” which opens the way for:
  2. The appearance of “the man of lawlessness,” a world-wide leader who will arise. In other passages, he is known as “antichrist.”
  3. This “lawless one” will oppose the true God, and eventually reveal his true nature to the world by taking his place in God’s temple and demand to be honored as God. This event is predicted in the Old Testament book of Daniel, and was specifically referred to by the Lord Jesus in Matthew 24:15.

 

  • Encouragement for the Christians in Thessalonica.

 

The believers apparently feared that they had somehow been left for judgment, so Paul writes to reassure and encourage them. They were destined for salvation, not the wrath of God:

 

But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth. He called you to this through our gospel, that you might share in the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. So then, brothers, stand firm and hold to the teachingswe passed on to you, whether by word of mouth or by letter. (2:13-15)

 

  • Clarifying priorities: Live and work faithfully and responsibly.

 

Throughout Christian history (even as this article is being written!) there have been misguided leaders who have set dates for the Lord’s return and urged believers to stop living ordinary lives, and instead to sell their possessions, wait on rooftops, etc. Paul decisively opposes such actions:

 

In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, we command you, brothers, to keep away from every brother who is idle and does not live according to the teachingyou received from us. (3:6)

 

Paul points to his own example in contrast. He was not idle, but worked with his own hands in order to provide the right pattern for them to follow. In this context Paul delivers the strong message,

 

For even when we were with you, we gave you this rule: “If a man will not work, he shall not eat.” (3:10)

 

Paul urges the church to confront this irresponsibility where it occurs. But lest overzealous believers overdo it and deal with others too harshly, Paul explains,

 

Yet do not regard him as an enemy, but warn him as a brother. (3:15)

 

This is a pattern caring Christians should continue to follow today. Throughout the New Testament we are told to accept our mutual responsibility for one another. We should teach, encourage, counsel, admonish, and warn each other. But none of these things should be done in a harsh or vindictive manner. We are to speak and act in love, mercy, and grace, just as the Lord has done toward us.

  

Conclusion           

In 2 Thessalonians can be seen the close relationship between the believer’s future hope and present responsibilities. Hope in the Bible is never uncertain. It is not, as you hear in everyday speech, “I hope so” representing wishful thinking. The word “hope” in the Bible refers to our firm assurance and eager expectation of God’s sure promises.

And yet, Christians’ focus on future events surrounding the return of Christ does not produce the quality that’s been described “so heavenly-minded that they’re no earthly good.” It’s just the opposite. Our sure hope in Christ and in God’s coming kingdom lead us to live appropriately today. We should go about our business, working at our occupations, being good neighbors, and doing good in Jesus’ name while we wait for his return from heaven. The Scriptures give us enough understanding of future events that we can be alert and ready should we be the generation that lives to see them.

Second Thessalonians is a great help for keeping this balanced focus.

 

T.L.S.

First Thessalonians: The ABCs

Authorship, Background, and Contents

  

Authorship

 

The letter begins with “Paul, Silas and Timothy, to the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace and peace to you(1:1). Paul occasionally associates others’ names with his own in addressing his letters (2 Thessalonians, Philippians), but the true author is Paul.

 First Thessalonians has been universally accepted as Pauline from the beginning. It is cited by Ignatius between A. D. 109-114. It was included in the earliest canonical lists (lists of inspired New Testament Scriptures), and was quoted and mentioned by name by prominent 2nd and 3rd century Christian writers, such as Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria. Other than the radical German critics of the 19th century, its authenticity has been assumed by all.

First Thessalonians stands out also among New Testament writings in that it can be precisely dated. There are two extra-biblical historical markers that provide brackets for located it. Paul write from Corinth shortly after arriving there (see Background), giving us the first date. We are told in Acts 18:1-2:

 

After this, Paul left Athens and went to Corinth. There he met a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had ordered all the Jews to leave Rome.

 

This same event was recorded by the Roman historian Suetonius in his lives of the 12 Caesars (about A.D. 121):

 

Because the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbances at the instigations of Chrestus, he expelled them from the city.

This event has been reliably dated around the year A.D. 49. Most historians accept that the comment on some agitator named “Chrestus” actually refers to Christ, which Suetonius had misunderstood. The “disturbances” were really probably disputes between Jewish Christians and non-Christian Jews in Rome about Jesus that were heated enough to draw the attention of the emperor. At any rate, that gives us A.D. 49 as the first bracket to locate the date of this letter.

The second date marker occurs also in Acts 18:

 

So Paul stayed for a year and a half, teaching them the word of God. While Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews made a united attack on Paul and brought him into court. “This man,” they charged, “is persuading the people to worship God in ways contrary to the law.” (Acts 18:11-13)

A stone inscription found by archaeologists confirms that Gallio was appointed proconsul of Achaia in the summer of A.D. 51. That gives us the outer marker. Since Paul probably wrote 1 Thessalonians early in his ministry at Corinth, the time of writing was probably the Spring of A.D. 50, though a year plus or minus is possible.

First Thessalonians is therefore at least the second-earliest letter of Paul in the New Testament; the earliest, if Galatians is dated in the 50s as some scholars believe. This letter gives us convincing historical evidence of what Paul taught and Christians believed only two decades after Jesus’ death and resurrection (usually dated either A.D. 30 or 33). Contrary to skeptical theories about “the long, gradual development of Christian beliefs,” this short letter shows the presence of every significant New Testament doctrine, demonstrating that the gospel has been preached in its fullness from the very beginning.

 

BackgroundThessalonians Art

 

There is remarkable harmony between 1 Thessalonians and the description of Paul’s ministry and movements in Acts 17-18. The founding of the church in Thessalonica is described in Acts 17:1-4:

 

When they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a Jewish synagogue. As his custom was, Paul went into the synagogue, and on three Sabbath days he reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and proving that the Christ had to suffer and rise from the dead. “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Christ,” he said. Some of the Jews were persuaded and joined Paul and Silas, as did a large number of God-fearing Greeks and not a few prominent women.

 

Some Bible students have take the statement “on three Sabbath days” to indicate that Paul had stayed in Thessalonica only three to four weeks. This is probably a misunderstanding, however. It is more likely that he then left his attempts in the synagogue and moved out to do work significantly with the Gentiles for many more weeks. More time would probably have been needed to win “a large number of God-fearing Greeks.”

First Thessalonians contains indications that Paul did indeed stay longer than 3-4 weeks. For example, in 2:9 he speaks of his personal example, demonstrating his willingness to work for his own support rather than receiving from them — an example that would have taken longer to demonstrate. Second, in Philippians 4:15-16 Paul reminds the Philippians that they had sent financial support to help him in Thessalonica at least twice, if not more, indicating a longer stay to allow for several 100 mile journeys between the cities. Paul’s stay in Thessalonica was a relatively short, but probably a few months rather than weeks.

Acts 17:5-9 describes the events that precipitated Paul’s departure:

 

But the Jews were jealous; so they rounded up some bad characters from the marketplace, formed a mob and started a riot in the city. They rushed to Jason’s house in search of Paul and Silas in order to bring them out to the crowd. But when they did not find them, they dragged Jason and some other brothers before the city officials, shouting: “These men who have caused trouble all over the world have now come here, and Jason has welcomed them into his house. They are all defying Caesar’s decrees, saying that there is another king, one called Jesus.” When they heard this, the crowd and the city officials were thrown into turmoil. Then they made Jason and the others post bond and let them go.

 

Knowing that Roman authorities had no interest in intervening in what they saw as internal Jewish divisions (see Acts 18:12-16 for a failed attempt by Jewish leaders to do so), Paul’s opponents aimed their attack where Rome was sensitive. The basic “loyalty oath” of the Roman Empire was contained in the assertion, “Caesar is lord.” Christians were seen as insurrectionists because of their counter-assertion, “Jesus is Lord.” There was a great deal of religious tolerance in the Roman Empire, but there was absolutely no tolerance regarding who was lord. The charge that Christians were proclaiming “another king” was certain to get the authorities’ attention. In this case, they demanded a sort of “peace bond” from Jason, to be forfeited if there were more trouble. This led Paul to leave town.

The circumstances of his departure naturally caused Paul to have anxious concerns about the church he left behind. Acts says he sent Timothy back to check on the condition of the church while he continued to Athens and Corinth.

Acts 18:5 then picks up the story:

 

When Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia, Paul devoted himself exclusively to preaching, testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ.

 

These same movements are mentioned in 1 Thes. 3:1-7

 

So when we could stand it no longer, we thought it best to be left by ourselves in Athens. We sent Timothy, who is our brother and God’s fellow worker in spreading the gospel of Christ, to strengthen and encourage you in your faith … But Timothy has just now come to us from you and has brought good news about your faith and love. He has told us that you always have pleasant memories of us and that you long to see us, just as we also long to see you. Therefore, brothers, in all our distress and persecution we were encouraged about you because of your faith. (3:1-2, 6-7)

 

So, having heard good news about the persevering faith of the Thessalonians, Paul rejoices. But Timothy has also brought news that they need answers to questions and confusion, so Paul addresses them in this letter of encouragement.

 

Contents1-thessalonians-59_2159_1600x1200

 

Though brief, 1 Thessalonians is full of profound teaching from the apostle. As said above, every major New Testament doctrine is mentioned in this letter. Along with doctrinal teaching, there are also strong exhortations for believers to live according to God’s will.

 

Watch for some of the following themes:

 

  • The converting power of the gospel.

 

The apostle Paul was surely one of the most active preachers of all time, but he never accepted credit for the conversion of his listeners. He always preached Christ in complete dependency on the Lord, and always attributed the “success” of his preaching to the converting work of the Holy Spirit. See 1:5

 

  • A clear description of what conversion entails.

 

In the first chapter, Paul describes the publicly obvious conversion of the Thessalonians, and the description is striking:

 

… you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead—Jesus, who rescues us from the coming wrath. (1:9-10)

 

Notice the elements: 1) they turned both “to God” and “from idols”; 2) that turning involved worshipping/serving “the true and living God” in contrast to their former idolatry; 3) their faith centers on God’s “Son,” who both died and rose from the dead; 4) and this same Jesus will return, an event for which they “wait”; 5) and that Christ provides salvation from the final judgment, which will be “wrath” for those who face it apart from him.

Notice how much Christian doctrine is included in this partial sentence. All this in a verse-and-a-half!

 

  • Paul’s example: Embodying as well as preaching the gospel.

 

For the apostle, the gospel was not just information to be shared; it was a life to be embodied, following Christ himself. Paul demonstrated sincere faith that seeks to please God rather than men, selfless service for others, and gentle leadership. See 2:5-12.

 

  • Exhortation to live sexually pure.

 

Sexual license was rampant in Greco-Roman society. Though there was some lip-service to “traditional family values” among conservative Romans, it was by and large just that: lip-service. Mistresses for married men and regular participation with prostitutes were basically assumed. Homosexuality was common, especially among the Greeks, and often included pederasty. Further, many of the religious cults included sexual acts as part of their “worship.” Sexual purity was an unknown concept.

In such a world, the new Christian movement was genuinely counter-cultural, truly revolutionary. The biblical values regarding sex and marriage from both the Old Testament and the teaching of Jesus would have been brand new to Gentile converts. But the standards are firm, and are clearly the will of God. See 4:1-8

 

  • Eager expectation for the return of Christ.

 

One of the observations quickly made by students of 1 Thessalonians is the many references to the second coming of the Lord. Keep in mind that the chapter and verse divisions so familiar to us were not in the original text. Nevertheless, the fact that Christ’s return is mentioned in every one of the five chapters as we know them shows that this is a major theme of the letter. The return of Christ has been the fervent hope of believers from the first century to today. See 1:10, 2:19, 3:13, 4:15, 5:23

 

  • What happens to believers who die.

 

Evidently, some members of the Thessalonian church had died since Paul’s departure, and they were unclear how deceased members of the church figured in the events of Christ’s return. Their questions gave Paul the opportunity to write a key passage to clarify for them, and us, what we hope to experience through rapture or resurrection. See 4:13-18

 

  • Focus on Christian community

 

Even though this gathering of believers had existed only for a matter of months, they had already become a community. Paul calls them to exercise their mutual responsibilities to care for each other, encourage one another, admonish one another, and seek for one another’s good. See 5:11-15

 

Conclusion           

For those who wonder what it would have been like to be a member of one of the earliest Christian congregations, 1 Thessalonians provides a glimpse. There was nothing more important than Jesus Christ: Who he is, what he did, and what he will do. In the meantime, as we wait for his return, what does God want from us? What will happen when he does return?

The first hearers of Paul’s letter wanted to know the same things we do today. This letter of Paul provides valuable perspectives from his early ministry.

 

T.L.S.

The Names Of God

All through the Bible there are many names for our great Lord. Here are just a few as you find Him revealed through each book of the Bible…go seek Him for yourself!

 

 

In… He is… Revealed as…
Genesis The Seed of Woman The One who would be born of the seed of a woman – Gen 3:15
Exodus The Passover Lamb The deliverer as in the life of Moses – Exodus 12
Our manna from Heaven – Exodus 16
Leviticus The High Priest The scapegoat in the sacrifices and offerings – Lev 1-7; 16, 23
Numbers The Cloud and The Fire Our Messiah who would be a King – Num 24:17
The Water from the Rock – Num 20
Deuteronomy The Prophet Like Moses Our Messiah who would be a prophet – Deut 18:15-19
Joshua The Captain of Our Salvation A leader like Joshua (who lead into the promised land) Jos 5:13-15
Judges The Judge And Lawgiver The true judge of the living and the dead
Ruth The Kinsman Redeemer A descendant of Boaz and Ruth; able to redeem us – Ruth 4:12-17
1 & 2 Samuel The Prophet of The Lord The Rock, faithful friend, exalted by God with power -1 Sam 2:10; 2 Sam 23:2-3, 1 Sam 18
1 & 2 Kings The Reigning King The reigning wise King like Solomon (the Millennial Reign)
1 & 2 Chronicles The Wise One Our Messiah would be from the tribe of Judah – 1 Chron 5:2, 2 Chron 9:22
Ezra The Faithful Scribe One in the person of Zerubbabel, the rebuilder of the temple -Ezra 4
Nehemiah The Rebuilder of the Walls One in the person of Nehemiah, the rebuilder of the walls of salvation
Esther Mordecai One in the person of Mordecai
Job The Dayspring From on High One in the sufferings of Job and the blessings that would follow
Psalms The Lord Who Is Our Shepherd The Lord and Son of God – Psalm 2:7, 12
The stone the builders rejected – Psalm 118:22
Proverbs & Ecclesiastes The Wisdom of God Our Messiah would be from Everlasting – Prov 8:22-23
Song of Solomon The Lover & Bridegroom The Bridegroom’s love for, and marriage to, the bride (church)
Isaiah The Suffering Servant Virgin born – Isaiah 7:14  Immanuel “God With Us”
Jeremiah & Lamentations The Weeping Prophet Our Messiah would be God, righteous – Jer 23:6
Ezekiel The Son of Man A descendant of David – Ez 34:23-24
Daniel The Son of Man coming in the clouds of Heaven A son of man’ given an everlasting kingdom – Dan 7:13-14
The fourth man in the fiery furnance – Dan 3:25
Hosea The Bridegroom Through the faithfulness of Hosea to his adulterous wife – Hos 3
Joel The Baptizer With The Holy Spirit The one to offer salvation to all mankind – Joel 2:32
Amos The Burden Bearer The one God would darken the day at noon during His death – Amos 8:9
Obadiah The Mighty Savior
Jonah The Forgiving God As in Jonah being 3 days & 3 nights in the belly of a fish -Jon 1:17
Micah The Messenger With Beautiful Feet The one who would be born in Bethlehem – Mic 5:2
Nahum The Avenger of God’s Elect
Habakkuk The Great Evangelist, Crying For Revival The One who would come from Teman at His return, full of glory – Hab 3:3
An intercessor of prayer for His people like Habakkuk
Zephaniah The Restorer of the Remnant
Haggai The Cleansing Fountain Our Messiah would visit the 2nd temple – Hag 2:6-9
Zechariah  The Pierced Son Messiah would be Priest and King, pierced -Zech 6:12-13, 12:10
Malachi The Son of Righteousness The One who would appear at the temple- Mal 3:1
Matthew The Messiah The Son of David, King of the Jews – Matt 1:1, 2:2
Mark The Miracle Worker The Holy One of God, Servant, King of Israel – Mark 1:24, 10:45, 15:32
Luke The Son of Man The Horn of Salvation – Luke 1:69
John The Son of God The Only Begotten Son – John 1:14,18
The Lamb of God – John 1:29,36
The Bread of life – John 6:35
The Light of the World – John 8:1
The I AM! – John 8:58
The Door of the Sheep – John 10:7,9
The Good Shepherd (John 10:11)
The Resurrection and life – John 11:25
The Way, the Truth, the Life – John 14:6
The True Vine – John 15:1
Acts The Ascended Lord The Prince of Life – Acts 3:15
Romans The Justifier The Rock of Offense, Judge of living & dead -Rom 9:33; 14:9
1 & 2 Corinthians The Last Adam The First-fruits and the Last Adam – 1 Cor 15:23; 15:45
Galatians The One Who Sets Us Free  The Lord Jesus Christ – Gal 1:3
Ephesians The Christ of Riches  The Head over All Things, the Cornerstone – Ephesians 1:22; 2:20
Philippians The God Who Meets Our Every Need  The Name above all names – Philippians 2:9
Colossians The Fullness of The Godhead  The Image of the Invisible God – Colossians 1:15; 18, 27
1 & 2 Thessalonians The Soon Coming King  The Lord of Peace – 2 Thessalonians 3:16
1 & 2 Timothy The Mediator Between God And Man  The King of Ages, the Mediator – 1 Timothy 1:17, 2:5
Titus The Blessed Hope The Blessed Hope – Titus 2:13
Philemon The Friend, Closer Than a Brother  The Lord Jesus Christ (Philemon 3)
Hebrews The Blood That Washes Away My Sins  The Heir of All Things – Hebrews 1:2, 2:17, 12:2
James The Great Physician The Lord of Glory – James 2:1, 5:9
1 & 2 Peter The Chief Shepherd  The Living Stone -1 Peter 2:4, 5:4
1 & 2 & 3 John Everlasting Love The Eternal Life – 1 John 1:2, 2:1
Jude The God our Saviour The Only Wise God our Saviour – Jude 25
Revelation The King of Kings and the Lord of Lords! The Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last – Revelation 1:17, 22:13
The Lion of the Tribe of Judah – Rev 5:5
The Word of God – Rev 19:13
The King of kings and Lord of lords – Rev 19:16
The Bright Morning Star – Rev 22:16